Grand Perfumes, Cosmetics & Perfumes  Retail, Alpharetta, GA
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Grand Perfumes, Cosmetics & Perfumes  Retail, Alpharetta, GA




Making of Perfumes.

The precise formulas of commercial perfumes are kept secret. Even if they were widely published, they would be dominated by such complex chemical procedures and ingredients that they would be of little use in providing a useful description of the experience of a scent. Nonetheless, connoisseurs of perfume can become extremely skillful at identifying components and origins of scents in the same manner as wine experts.The most practical way to start describing a perfume is according to its concentration level, the family it belongs to, and the notes of the scent, which all affect the overall impression of a perfume from first application to the last lingering hint of scent.

Concentration levels

Perfume oil is necessarily diluted with a solvent because undiluted oils (natural or synthetic) contain high concentrations of volatile components that will likely result in allergic reactions and possibly injury when applied directly to skin or clothing.By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is ethanol or a mixture of ethanol and water. Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling lipids such as jojoba, fractionated coconut oil or wax. The concentration by percent/volume of perfume oil is as follows:

  • Perfume extract: 20%-40% aromatic compounds
  • Eau de parfum: 10-30% aromatic compounds
  • Eau de toilette: 5-20% aromatic compounds
  • Eau de cologne: 2-5% aromatic compounds

Traditional

The traditional classification which emerged around 1900 comprised the following catego ries:
  • Single Floral: Fragrances that are dominated by a scent from one particular flower; in French called a soliflore. (e.g. Serge Lutens' Sa Majeste La Rose, which is dominated by rose.)
  • Floral Bouquet: Containing the combination of several flowers in a scent.
  • Ambry: A large fragrance class featuring the scents of vanilla and animal scents together with flowers and woods. Can be enhanced by camphorous oils and incense resins, which bring to mind Victorian era imagery of the Middle East and Far East.
     
  • Woody: Fragrances that are dominated by woody scents, typically of sandalwood and cedar. Patchouli, with its camphoraceous smell, is commonly found in these perfumes.
  • Leather: A family of fragrances which features the scents of honey, tobacco, wood and wood tars in its middle or base notes and a scent that alludes to leather.
  • Chypre: Meaning Cyprus in French, this includes fragrances built on a similar accord consisting of bergamot, oakmoss, patchouli, and labdanum. This family of fragrances is named after a perfume by François Coty.
  • Fougère: Meaning Fern in French, built on a base of lavender, coumarin and oakmoss. Houbigant's Fougère Royale pioneered the use of this base. Many men's fragrances belong to this family of fragrances, which is characterized by its sharp herbaceous and woody scent.

Modern

Since 1945, due to great advances in the technology of perfume creation (i.e., compound design and synthesis) as well as the natural development of styles and tastes; new categories have emerged to describe modern scents:
  • Bright Floral: combining the traditional Single Floral & Floral Bouquet categories.
     
  • Green: a lighter and more modern interpretation of the Chypre type.
  • Oceanic/Ozone: the newest category in perfume history, appearing in 1991 with Christian Dior's Dune. A very clean, modern smell leading to many of the modern androgynous perfumes.
  • Citrus or Fruity: An old fragrance family that until recently consisted mainly of "freshening" eau de colognes due to the low tenacity of citrus scents. Development of newer fragrance compounds has allowed for the creation of primarily citrus fragrances.
  • Gourmand: scents with "edible" or "dessert"-like qualities. These often contain notes like vanilla and tonka bean, as well as synthetic components designed to resemble food flavors. An example is Thierry Mugler's Angel.

Fragrance Notes

Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three 'notes', making the harmonious chord of the scent. The notes unfold over time, with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes, and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume.

  • Top notes: The scents that are perceived immediately on application of a perfume. Top notes consist of small, light molecules that evaporate quickly: they form a person's initial impression of a perfume and thus are very important in the selling of a perfume. The scents of this note class are usually described as "fresh," "assertive" or "sharp." The compounds that contribute to top notes are strong in scent, very volatile, and evaporate quickly. Citrus and ginger scents are common top notes. Also called the head notes.
  • Middle notes: The scent of a perfume that emerges after the top notes dissipate. The middle note compounds form the "heart" or main body of a perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which become more pleasant with time. Not surprisingly, the scent of middle note compounds is usually more mellow and "rounded." Scents from this note class appear anywhere from two minutes to one hour after the application of a perfume. Lavender and rose scents are typical middle notes. Also called the heart notes.
  • Base notes: The scent of a perfume that appears after the departure of the middle notes. The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume. Compounds of this class are often the fixatives used to hold and boost the strength of the lighter top and middle notes. Consisting of large, heavy molecules that evaporate slowly, compounds of this class of scents are typically rich and "deep" and are usually not perceived until 30 minutes after the application of the perfume or during the period of perfume dry-down. Some base notes can still be detectable in excess of twenty-four hours after application, particularly the animalic notes.

Fragrant extracts

Although fragrant extracts are known to the general public as the generic term "essential oils", a more specific language is used in the fragrance industry to describe the source, purity, and technique used to obtain a particular fragrant extract.Of these extracts, only absolutes, essential oils, and tinctures are directly used to formulate perfumes.

  • Absolute: Fragrant materials that are purified from a pommade or concrete by soaking them in ethanol. By using a slightly hydrophilic compound such as ethanol, most of the fragrant compounds from the waxy source materials can be extracted without dissolving any of the fragrantless waxy molecules. Absolutes are usually found in the form of an oily liquid.
  • Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from raw materials through solvent extraction using volatile hydrocarbons. Concretes usually contain a large amount of wax due to the ease in which the solvents dissolve various hydrophobic compounds. As such concretes are usually further purified through distillation or ethanol based solvent extraction. Concretes are typically either waxy or resinous solids or thick oily liquids.
  • Essential oil: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from a source material directly through distillation or expression and obtained in the form of an oily liquid. Oils extracted through expression are sometimes called expression oils.
  • Pomade: A fragrant mass of solid fat created from the enfleurage process, in which odorous compounds in raw materials are adsorbed into animal fats. Pommades are found in the form of an oily and sticky solid.
  • Tincture: Fragrant materials produced by directly soaking and infusing raw materials in ethanol. Tinctures are typically thin liquids.

Composing perfumes

Perfume compositions are an important part of many industries ranging from the luxury goods sectors, food services industries, to manufacturers of various household chemicals. The purpose of using perfume or fragrance compositions in these industries is to affect customers through their sense of smell and entice them into purchasing the perfume or perfumed product. As such there is significant interest in producing a perfume formulation that people will find aesthetically pleasing.

The Perfumer

The job of composing perfumes that will sell is left up to an expert on perfume composition or known in the fragrance industry as the perfumer. They are also sometimes referred to affectionately as "the Nose" due to their fine sense of smell and skill in smell composition. The perfumer is effectively an artist who is trained in depth on the concepts of fragrance aesthetics and who is capable of conveying abstract concepts and moods with their fragrance compositions. At the most rudimentary level, a perfumer must have a keen knowledge of a large variety of fragrance ingredients and their smells, and be able to distinguish each of the fragrance ingredients whether alone or in combination with other fragrances. As well, they must know how each ingredient reveals itself through time with other ingredients.

 The job of the perfumer is very similar to that of flavourists, who compose smells and flavourants for many commercial food products.The composition of a perfume typically begins with a brief by the perfumer's employer or an outside customer. The customers to the perfumer or their employers, are typically fashion houses or large corporations of various industries. Each brief will contain the specifications for the desired perfume, and will describe in often poetic or abstract terms what the perfume should smell like or what feelings it should evoke in those who smell it, along with a maximum per litre price of the perfume oil concentrate. This allowance, along with the intended application of the perfume will determine what aromatics and fragrance ingredients can/will be used in the perfume composition.

The perfumer will then go through the process of blending multiple perfume mixtures and will attempt to capture the desired feelings specified in the brief. After presenting the perfume mixtures to the customers, the perfumer may "win" the brief with their approval, and proceed to sell the formulation to the customer, often with modifications of the composition of the perfume. This process typically spans over several months to several years. The perfume composition will then be either used to enhance another product as a functional fragrance (shampoos, make-up, detergents, car interiors, etc.), or marketed and sold directly to the public as a fine fragrance

History of perfume and perfumery

Egyptian scene depicting the preparation of Lily perfumeThe word perfume used today derives from the Latin "per fume", meaning through smoke. Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Egypt but was developed and further refined by the Romans and the Arabs. Although perfume and perfumery also existed in East Asia, much of its fragrances are incense based.The world's first chemist is considered to be a person named Tapputi, a perfume maker who was mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the second millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Recently, archaeologists have uncovered what is believed to be the world's oldest perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. The perfumes where discovered in an ancient perfumery factory.

At least 60 distilling stills, mixing bowls, funnels and perfume bottles were found in the 43,000 square foot factory. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, like almond, coriander, myrtle, conifer resin, bergamot, but not flowers. The Iranian doctor and chemist Avicenna introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, (the procedure most commonly used today). He first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes were mixtures of oil and crushed herbs, or petals which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, and immediately became popular. Both of the raw ingredients and distillation technology significantly influenced western perfumery and scientific developments, particularly chemistry.Knowledge of perfumery came to Europe as early as the 14th century due partially to Arabic influences and knowledge. But it was the Hungarians who ultimately introduced the first modern perfume. The first modern perfume, made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution, was made in 1370 at the command of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary and was known throughout Europe as Hungary Water.

The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, and in the 16th century, Italian refinements were taken to France by Catherine de Medicis personal perfumer, Rene le Florentin. His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulas could be stolen en route. France quickly became the European center of perfume and cosmetic manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France. During the Renaissance period, perfumes were used primarily by royalty and the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from the sanitary practices of the day. Partly due to this patronage, the western perfumery industry was created. By the 18th century, aromatic plants were being grown in the Grasse region of France to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Even today, France remains the centre of the European perfume design and trade.

Preserving perfume

Fragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or break down if improperly stored in the presence of:
  • Heat
  • Light
  • Oxygen
  • Extraneous organic materials

Proper preservation of perfumes involve keeping them away from sources of heat and storing them where they will not be exposed to light. An opened bottle will keep its aroma intact for up to a year, as long as it is full or nearly so, but as the level goes down, the presence of oxygen in the air that is contained in the bottle will alter the perfume's smell character, eventually distorting them.Perfumes are best preserved when kept in light-tight aluminium bottles or in their original packaging when not in use, and refrigerated at a relatively low temperatures between 3-7 degrees Celsius. Although it is difficult to completely remove oxygen from the headspace of a stored flask of fragrance, opting for spray dispensers instead of rollers and "open" bottles will minimize oxygen exposure. Sprays also have the advantage of isolating fragrance inside a bottle and preventing it from mixing with dust, skin, and detritus, which will degrade and alter the quality of a perfume.

 Famous perfumes classified by year of creation

Year Name Company Perfumer

1709

Eau de Cologne

Johann Maria Farina

Johann Maria Farina (1685-1766)

1798

Eau Vivifiante

Parfum Lubin

Pierre François Lubin

1872

Hammam Bouquet

Penhaligon's

William Henry Penhaligon

1889

Jicky

Guerlain

Aimé Guerlain

1902

Blenheim Bouquet

Penhaligon's

William Henry Penhaligon

1912

L'Heure Bleue

Guerlain

Jacques Guerlain

1911

English Fern

Penhaligon's

William Henry Penhaligon

1914

Le Chypre

François Coty

François Coty

1919

Mitsouko

Guerlain

Jacques Guerlain

1919

Tabac Blond

Caron

Ernest Daltroff

1921

N°5

Chanel

Ernest Beaux

1925

Shalimar

Guerlain

Jacques Guerlain

1927

Arpège

Lanvin

André Fraysse

1929

Soir de Paris

Bourjois

Ernest Beaux

1930

Joy

Jean Patou

Henri Alméras

1932

Je Reviens

House of Worth

Maurice Blanchet

1933

Nuit de Longchamp

Parfum Lubin

 

1934

Pour Un Homme

Caron

Ernest Daltroff

1944

Bandit

Robert Piguet

Germaine Cellier

1945

Femme

Rochas

Edmond Roudnitska

1947

Vent Vert

Balmain

Germaine Cellier

1948

Fracas

Robert Piguet

Germaine Cellier

1948

L'Air du temps

Nina Ricci

Françis Fabron

1953

Youth Dew[20][21]

Estée Lauder

Estée Lauder

1956

Diorissimo

Christian Dior

Edmond Roudnitska

1959

Monsieur

Givenchy

Michel Hy

1959

Cabochard

Parfums Grès

Bernard Chant

1964

Idole de Lubin

Parfum Lubin

 

1966

Eau sauvage

Christian Dior

Edmond Roudnitska

1969

Ô

Lancôme

Robert Gonnon

1970

No. 19

Chanel

 

1973

Charlie

Revlon

Harry A. Cuttler

1976

Lily of the Valley

Penhaligon's

 

1976

Violetta

Penhaligon's

 

1976

Z-14

Halston

Vincent Marsello

1977

Opium

Yves Saint-Laurent

Jean-Louis Sieuzac

1978

Azzaro Pour Homme

Azzaro

Gérard Anthony, Martin Heiddenreich, Richard Wirtz

1978

Bluebell

Penhaligon's

Michael Pickthall

1978

Magie Noire

Lancôme

G. Goupy / J-C Niel

1979

Anaïs Anaïs

Cacharel

Raymond Chaillan/Roger Pellegrino

1979

Ivoire

Balmain

Francis Camail

1981

Nombre Noir

Shiseido

Jean-Yves Leroy

1981

Giorgio

Giorgio Beverly Hills

Group Work: M.L. Quince, Francis Camail, Harry Cuttler

1983

Paris

Yves Saint-Laurent

Sophia Grojsman

1984

Coco

Chanel

Jacques Polge

1985

Poison

Christian Dior

Jean Guichard

1986

Prescriptives Calyx

Prescriptives

Sophia Grojsman

1987

Lou Lou

Cacharel

Jean Guichard

1988

Eternity

Calvin Klein

Sophia Grojsman

1990

Trésor

Lancôme

Sophia Grojsman

1992

Angel

Thierry Mugler

Olvier Cresp

1993

Jean-Paul Gaultier

Jean-Paul Gaultier

Jacques Cavallier

1995

CK One

Calvin Klein

Harry Fremont and Alberto Morillas

1995

Dolce Vita

Christian Dior

Pierre Bourdon and Maurice Roger

1995

Le Mâle

Jean-Paul Gaultier

Francis Kurkdjian

1996

Acqua di Gió Pour Homme

Giorgio Armani

Alberto Morillas and Jacques Cavallier

1997

Envy

Gucci

Maurice Roucel

1999

J’Adore

Christian Dior

Calice Becker

2001

Coco Mademoiselle

Chanel

Jacques Polge

2001

Nu

Yves Saint-Laurent

Jacques Cavallier

2003

100% Love

Shaping Room

Sophia Grojsman

2005

Chinatown

Bond No. 9

Aurelien Guichard

2006

Rose 31

Le Labo

Daphne Bugey

2006

Lily & Spice

Penhaligon's

 
  

 


 
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GrandPerfumes.com was launched in order to give you the highest quality 100% genuine perfumes and colognes, while not making the price outrageous like most other websites do. We believe in a philosophy that goes a little something like this: "If it's not something you'd jump for as a customer, don't even consider advertising it" or more commonly referred to as the golden rule: "Treat others how you would like to be treated." We like to put ourselves in the shoes of our customer. If we think a price is too high, we lower it. Done and done. We've been in the cologne and perfume business for 15 years now, and we've had the opportunity to try out, buy and sell the top perfumes that are being manufactured all around the world today. Immediately after we get a new perfume or a new cologne, we place a minimal mark up on it and then offer it to our client. Not only do we offer high end designer perfumes & designer colognes, we also offer discount cologne and discount perfume. Often, if you go through our discount sections, you'll find that we have plenty of newer and very popular perfumes for at great prices.

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Grandperfumes has over 5000 fragrances available to choose from - on our list of discount products are often very high profile names that are on the list of most popular perfumes and colognes of today. We believe that the customer comes first, and we're proving it to you by giving you great prices, great service, and affordable shipping. Grandperfumes.com wouldn't be able to survive without you, our customers, and because of that, we want to treat you the best we can. We want you to love our products and service so that you'll come back to us for more and help us spread the word about our business! Makes sense, right? In all of our years, Grandperfumes.com has been proud to have received thousands of letters, calls, and e-mails from our loving clients about how they were surprised to receive great service from us, despite having great prices as well. After all being in retail for 15 years and still having an A+ rating from BBB is what we are proud of.

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